Commonwealth Forestry News     {short description of image}

No. 2

September 1998

ISSN 1463-3868


Chairman's column

Association News
   76th Annual General Meeting
   CF News - Its Editorial Policy
   FAO CFA & Jag Maini in Rome

Around The World
   15th CFC and Southern Africa
   Spending Review - UK
   UNEP Reform

News of members

   Creative Research in N Zealand
   CIFOR - not traditional
   FORSPA - in Asia Pacific
   IUFRO'S 21st Century Strategy

Special features
   Water pricing in South Africa
   Outlook for Forestry

Forest Scenes
   Guadalupe, pines and goats
   Archaeology in the woods

   Grounds for Controversy?

CFA Initiatives
   Commonwealth Forestry Review
   Calling all foresters

CFA Membership

The international newsletter of the Commonwealth Forestry Association

"To promote the well-being of the world's forest and those who depend on them."

CFA. Administrative Office: Oxford Forestry Institute, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RB, UK. Telephone:[+44]01865 271037 Facsimile: [+44]01865 275074. E.mail:
Editor CFNews:
Philip Wardle, 3 Charles Hill, Elstead, GU8 6LE,Surrey,U.K.
Telephone, Facsimile:-[+44]01252702204.

Chairman's column

Compensation to the forest owners for the multiple Use benefits from forests
from JAG MAINI, Chairman

Perspectives on the role of forests have evolved significantly during recent years. Forests are no longer considered as nature's factory that only produces wood. There is now a general recognition that forests provide a wide range of social and economic benefits as well as environmental values and services. It is important to note that forests provide all these multiple benefits simultaneously. A healthy forest conserves soil, water and biological diversity while also fixing carbon and producing wood for industrial use or for energy.

The environmental values and services provided by forests have attracted particular attention and public debate during the past two decades. While some of the environmental benefits are local in scope (e.g. shelter belts in agricultural land or forest cover to assist in avalanche control) other environmental services may be received at the national, trans-boundary or regional levels (e.g., watershed forests of international rivers in Canada and the U.S.A. or Himalayas; habitat for migratory wildlife,) or global in scope (e.g. ecological cycles such as carbon, oxygen, hydrological, etc.).

Those engaged in addressing the national, regional and international forest policy issues recognise that in most countries the wood is undervalued and that financial investment in sustainable forest management (SFM) is inadequate in comparison with the overall benefits received, including environmental services, which generally appear to be taken for granted as free goods.

How should society, as beneficiary of environmental services received, at different geographic levels, evaluate and compensate the forest owners for these benefits? During recent years much work, published on the valuation of forest goods and services remains theory with little integration in the application to national and international forest policy.

As an incentive for SFM, we need to formulate approaches that would provide compensation to forest owners for the multiple benefits they provide. There are at least two emerging global environmental issues which may provide the basis to address this potential policy instrument in concrete terms. First, the climate change issue: the Kyoto Protocol recognises the significant role of forest in carbon sequestration and as carbon reservoirs; this opens the possibility of creating a market for sequestering carbon dioxide (an important greenhouse gas) and for compensating forest owners. Second, water scarcity and water quality is an emerging global issue that, in some areas, is expected to be a major constraint on food security, human health, economic development and urbanisation in the next century. Most of the watersheds of the world are forested or were once forested. Maintaining existing watersheds as well as reforesting and restoring degraded watershed forests are likely!ainto provide multiple benefits in addition to soil and water conservation. There are only a few examples where urban centres now provide some compensation to forest owners to maintain watershed forests in a healthy state.

The CFA newsletter is intended to exchange ideas on current and on emerging issues and opportunities related to forest. Your views on valuation of forests for environmental benefits and services are invited. The editor of this newsletter will welcome specific examples and case studies on innovative approaches to compensate forest owners by beneficiaries at various geographic levels.

Jag Maini , Chairman of CFA is Co-ordinator and Head of the Secretariat of the Intergovernmental Forum on Forests, Division for Sustainable Development, Department for Economic and Social Affairs (DESA), United Nations

Association News

76th Annual General Meeting
Westonbirt School, Gloucestershire, U.K. Friday, 8th May 1998

The Duke of Buccleuch (President) took the chair. Apologies were received from: Dr Jag Maini (Chairman), In his absence Professor Julian Evans presented a draft Chairman's Report.

1997-1998 had been an interesting year. "The Worlds' Forests - Rio + 5: International Initiatives towards Sustainable Management" ed. A J Grayson & W B Maynard had been published in November. The first edition of the Newsletter had come out in March. The office was moved in December across South Parks Road to Halifax House, with a new telephone number, but retaining the same postal address

For the future the emphasis should be on worldwide opportunities. The Association had an excellent forestry network, which was recognised by the Commonwealth Foundation, and wide membership. Four important points had been identified for the Association as an NGO: -

-clear third world impact
-pan Commonwealth governance
-outward looking programmes (eg joint Meeting with TAA)
-support across other organisations eg Canadian Forestry Commission, Rhodes Trust, DFID etc.

The Association's successful activities at the Commonwealth Forestry Conference in Zimbabwe, including administering the participation of 15 younger foresters from developing Commonwealth countries, had been followed up by a request to do the same at the next conference. An Exchange Scheme suggested by Mr Brian Kerr, Commonwealth Secretariat, was being explored.

There were 1132 paid up members of the Association in 1997; and 147 new members had joined in 1997-8 (100 in developing countries). The Accounts show the Association holding its own. There had been a good response to the Life Members Appeal and this would now be widened to the rest of the world.

Ms Virginia Ross, on behalf of the Treasurer, presented the Accounts for 1997 which showed a small operating loss of £885, with a surplus general fund balance of £1,843 to carry forward; a healthy position compared with last year. Much work had been done on reclaiming back payments. Mr Dick Jenkin was thanked for his meticulous work in recovering £1,536 from back covenants. Thanks were expressed to Ms Ross for preparation of the accounts and to Mr Ken Wright, who would be retiring as auditor.

Concerning publications, the proposed changed title for the Review as "The International Forestry Review, Journal of the Commonwealth Forestry Association" was explained. Dr Lowe considered the previous title more distinctive but Mr Parsons considered it really was international now, and its circulation was being restricted by the suggestion that it was by and for members of the Commonwealth only. Legal advice suggested the change of title may need a petition to the Privy Council.

The Newsletter functions include information on activities of CFA and its Branches; spreading communications on forestry in line with aims of Commonwealth Foundation in support of Developing Countries; reaching the membership and a wider audience and stimulating active participation worldwide. The Newsletter will be put on the Internet.

Regional Awards, proposed by Mr Newman, were made to Mr John Oldham, Western Australia, and Mr D. Wije-Wardana, New Zealand, for distinguished service to forestry and raising the Association's profile in their region. They receive a medal, and a scroll. The Association was encouraging other Regional Chairs to make proposals.

The President, His Grace the Duke of Buccleuch; Chairman, Dr Jag Maini; and Vice Chairman, Professor Julian Evans,were re-elected. A new Treasurer, Mr Christopher Latham, and a new Auditor, Mr Simon Brown, were elected, with particular thanks to Mr Latham, a Vice President of long standing, for accepting the onerous assignment as Treasurer. Thanks were expressed to Mr Jim Sandom, retiring Treasurer, and to Mr Philip Adlard, retiring as Membership Secretary and from the Governing Council.

In the administration Ms Michelle Leeks replaced Mrs Isabel Richardson as Secretary in June

Welcome to Ms Leeks and warm thanks to Mrs Richardson for her contribution over three years to the Association and for her particular efforts on CFA initiatives at the 15th CF Conference and in handling the recent office move.

(Full minutes and accounts from Secretary CFA)

After the AGM we had a very pleasant dinner in the refectory of Westonbirt School and the following morning had the opportunity of a tour of Westonbirt Arboretum.

AGM 1999

The President invited the Association to hold the 1999 AGM at Boughton House in Northamptonshire in May for two days, with a Dinner in the locality, and possible visits to local woodlands of interest.

Autumn Meeting 1998

Milton Keynes Parks Trust - Trees and woodlands: 3 October 1998 assembling at 10.AM at Campbell Park Pavilion, 1300 Silbury Boulevard , Milton Keynes. Convenor: Peter Wood, Vice President

In Memoriam

We regret to announce the death of: Solomon Chipompha and Goodson Sakanda, Malawi; Martin Rukuba*, Uganda and R.W.J.Keay *, A.J.L. Mitchel UK. *Obituary notices will be found in CFR 1998 Vol 77/3

CF News - Its Editorial Policy

For several years there has been discussion in the Association, in the executive committee and in the publications committee about the need for a newsletter and its role.

Peter Wood, Vice-President, mentions that since 1994 the CFA has identified a niche for a newsletter. Why is it needed? First, the steadily rising reputation of the Review as a home for professionally refereed papers means that many question the place of news about members in such a journal. Second information from the Association's branches in different Commonwealth countries deserve a wider audience than is reached by the Review. Third, following discussion with the Commonwealth Foundation, which provides support for the CFA programme in developing countries, it was realised that, as a Commonwealth professional organisation, the CFA had a responsibility to report and comment on current forestry matters for the wider Commonwealth and for a World audience, rather than to our membership only .

Duncan Poore, Vice-President, suggested that the most useful service the Association could provide would be in keeping the forestry community regularly up to date on the rapidly moving international forestry debate. It might give information on the appointment of key international figures. It should include important developments in Commonwealth and other countries including domestic issues directly relevant to the evolving international scene.

John Brazier, Chairman Publications Committee, saw two roles for the Newsletter. First to appeal to a wide spectrum of people interested in topical reports on current forestry matters, whether policy or practice, presenting them in an informative and not too technical way. Secondly to meet the need for information about the activities of the association and its members.

On this basis, the Association has decided to publish an international newsletter to reach to the membership and a wider audience in a direct and less formal way. A particularly important policy will be to seek the active participation of members in all parts of the Commonwealth and beyond. The aims of the Newsletter are first to inform members and a wider audience of matters of current forestry concern in the Commonwealth and internationally, stimulating debate and interaction; second to publicise the Association's activity in the Commonwealth and beyond and to encourage wider membership and third to provide a forum for exchange of information about the activities of members and branches of the CFA around the world.

In concluding please hear my call to foresters, to people concerned about forestry, to members of CFA - around the Commonwealth - in every country and organisation interested in forestry around the world - to react and act and send your information, ideas, opinions in the form of interesting and succinct articles not exceeding 200 words, to make a lively and participative CFNews.

from PHILIP WARDLE, Member of Governing Council, Editor CFNews.

FAO CFA branch meet with Jag Maini in Rome.

On the occasion of the 5th meeting of the CIFOR International Project Advisory Panel (IPAP), 25-27 March 1998, which was hosted in Rome by FAO, a lunchtime meeting was organised by the CFA Rome branch with CFA Chairman Jag Maini. Twenty one members and potential members drawn from the international participants in the meeting and FAO staff members enjoyed traditional Italian pasta and heard Dr Maini talk of recent developments in the CFA and plans for the future.

from JIM BALL Vice-Chairman Europe

Around The World

Corrigendum to CFN No.1 :- The Commonwealth Foundation was established by the Commonwealth Heads of Government in 1966.

15th CFC and trends in Southern Africa

The 15th Commonwealth Forestry Conference held in Zimbabwe in May 1997 provided an important forum for exchanging experiences, reviewing the progress made and challenges for achieving sustainable forest management in a rapidly changing political environment. The conference served to confirm and reinforce the forestry development trends in Southern Africa, particularly with regard to the clear shift towards community participation in forest management. A case was made to enhance the commercialisation of forest products and services in order to increase their economic contribution to the livelihood and overall poverty alleviation among the communities managing the forest resources. This will add value to the forest resources and should provide an incentive manage them sustainably.

Since the conference, the importance of developing partnership between the public sector, private sector and local communities has received a new impetus and dialogue between these sectors has been initiated in a number of countries. In Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe this process is being complemented by policy review studies aimed at identifying current policy impediments to sustainable forest management, as well as identifying opportunities for creating an enabling environment. Political commitment and support now hold the key to how successful these initiatives will be, but it is quite clear that countries in Southern Africa have taken the first steps towards sustainable forest management.

From PETER GONDO Zimbabwe

Certification in the UK

As in many countries, forest certification has been the subject of much debate in the UK since the emergence of the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) some five years ago. Though the different sides of the debate have much in common, mistrust has prevented any meeting of minds until recently. In a process facilitated by the Forestry Commission, the UK forestry and environmental communities are working with the FSC to develop a certification standard for UK forests. The certification standard is derived from the recently published UK Standard. We have made good progress since starting the process in February. We circulated a first draft of the standard in April and, following a period of consultation, we will be circulating the final draft at the end of July.

Some other national initiatives have failed to gain market acceptance because they have been set up in competition with the FSC's scheme. Conversely the FSC has failed to gain widespread acceptance because they wanted to take the lead in setting national certification standards. In the UK we have set out to involve the FSC from the start of the process, while being clear that the standard will be owned not by the FSC but by the UK forestry and environmental communities. If we are unable to keep the FSC on board, we still have developed a credible certification standard which will satisfy many of our customers who are facing consumer demands for third party or independent certification.

from DAVID BILLS Director General, Forestry Commission G.B.

Comprehensive Spending Review - UK Government

The lead forestry minister, the Rt Hon Donald Dewar MP, Secretary of State for Scotland said in July that the CSR signals a major change in the approach to investment in forestry. The Government has put an end to the programme of large scale sales of Forestry Commission woods and forests. Over the past 17 years over 144 000 ha of forest land has been sold off. In many cases people's ability to use that land for quiet enjoyment of the countryside has been sold with it. The announcement confirmed a permanent halt to this large scale sell-off and is aimed at safeguarding access to the countryside for walkers, cyclists and horseriders and many others who use the public forests for recreation and enjoyment. The CSR settlement will allow the Commission to develop further the recreational and environmental benefits provided by its estate, whilst ensuring taxpayers obtain a fair reward for their investment.


Intergovernmental Forum on Forests (IFF)

The following international meetings in 1998 - some already held - were related to the implementation of the proposals for action in this process:

10 April 1998, Tokyo, Japan. CIFOR Public Forum - Forests for the Next Generation, UN University;

13 April-1 May, UN, New York. 6th Session of the UN Commission on Sustainable Development;

4-15 May, Bratislava, Slovakia. 4th meeting of the COP of the Convention on Biological Diversity;

2-3 June, Lisbon, Portugal. Third Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe;

24 August - 4 September, IFF II, Geneva, Switzerland;

7-10 September, Ort/Gmunden, Austria. International Consultation on Research and Information Systems in Forestry. Sponsored by Indonesia and Austria in cooperation with IUFRO, CIFOR, FAO and the IFF Secretariat;

1998? Costa Rica. NGOs/Government of Costa Rica Initiative on Underlying Causes of Deforestation and Forest Degradation.

Meetings of the FAO regional Forestry Commissions with a role in this process - several combined with Workshops on the implementation of IPF/CSD proposals for action with special reference to national forest programmes - were scheduled for 1998 as follows:-

23-27 February, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Asia-Pacific F.C 17th session;

13-17 April, Dakar, Senegal. African Forestry and Wildlife Commission 12th session;

10-14 September, Havana, Cuba. Latin American and Caribbean F.C 20th session;

19-23 October, Finland. European F.C 29th session;

16-20 November, Villahermosa, Mexico. North American F.C 19th session;

6-9 December, Damascus, Syria. Near East F.C 13th session.

Main IFF Programme Elements and the organisations and persons with primary responsibility for the IFF II meeting in Geneva, are as follows:

a) The need for financial resources: UNDP: Ralph Schmidt;

b) Trade and environment: ITTO: Takeishi Ishikawa;

c) Transfer of technology: FAO: Luis Santiago Botero;

d) Issues needing further clarification:-

· Underlying causes of deforestation: UNEP: Hamdallah Zedan;

· Traditional forest related knowledge: CBD Secretariat: Ana Clara Schenberg;

· Rehabilitation of forest cover: FAO: Luis Santiago Botero;

· Forest Conservation: UNEP: Hamdallah Zedan;

· Research priorities: CIFOR: Neil Byron;

· Valuation of forest goods and services: World Bank: Jim Douglas;

· Economic instruments, tax policies and land tenure: World Bank: Jim Douglas;

· Supply and demand of wood and non-wood forest products and services: FAO: Luis Santiago Botero;

IFF Secretariat: Elisabeth Barsk-Rundquist; Jaime Hurtubia; Mahendra Joshi; Tage Michaelsen


UNEP Reform

The United Nations Environment Programme UNEP executive director Klaus Toepfer was due to deliver reform recommendations, as part of a wider reform of the United Nations, in June.

The organisation's managing director, Jorge Illueca, considered that UNEP needs broader powers if it is to tackle major environmental issues, such as Indonesian forest fires. He said after speaking to the Singapore Environment Council on June 4th , that a task force was looking at the reformation of UNEP. There were a number of governments that felt, given the gravity of environmental problems, that stronger authority was needed than UNEP currently has. What many governments were looking at was the evolution of UNEP into a World Environment Organisation (WEO), which would give it broad powers to resolve conflict, like its trade counterpart, the World Trade Organisation This was just one option being considered by the United Nations reform task force.


Association Forestiere Francophone Internationale (AFFI)

An important meeting of Francophone foresters took place on 18 October 1997 at the World Forestry Congress in Antalya, Turkey. The object of the meeting was to explore the modalities of setting up a new international forestry association, the Association Forestiere Francophone Internationale (AFFI).From the CFA Peter Wood (Vice President), Jag Maini (Chairman ) and Ralph Roberts (Vice-chairman, Americas and Caribbean) took part. The meeting took considerable note of how the CFA was set up and how it operated, though the new association is developing its own modus operandi through a working group set up at the conference. The Secretary to the Association is Mr Boufeldja Benabdallah at the Institut de l'Energie des Pays Ayant en Commun l'Usage du Francais (IEPF), 56 rue Saint Pierre, 3e etage, Quebec, G1K 4A1, Canada. Email

from PETER WOOD Vice President

News of members and friends

New DG of Forestry in Peninsular Malaysia

Dato' Zul Mukhshar Bin Dato' Md. Shaari has been appointed Director General of Forestry.

Dato' Ismail bin Awang has retired from Government Service and is now the Chief Executive Officer of the Malaysian Timber Council.

New Director of Forestry in Zambia

The Forestry Department is now headed by Ms A. Chileshe under the new title Director of Forestry.

Mr Akapelwa, formerly Chief Conservator of Forests, retired from Government Service in June 1997.

Dr Ron Ayling leaves Canada's IDRC for private consulting

Ron, CFA member since 1977, recently left the International Development Research Centre, where he had spent some 15 years as senior programme officer, working mainly to support agroforestry and social forestry research in countries of East and Southern Africa. Latterly his work was in support of the International Model Forest Program. He can be contacted by E-mail

News from Bob Izlar, Georgia USA

Bob, newly appointed Director of the Center for Forest Business in the Daniel B. Warnell School of Forest Resources University of Georgia, is the CFA local hon. secy. for the USA. He mentions his recent election to Georgia Forester's Hall of Fame; the highest honor the Georgia Division of the Society of American Foresters can bestow; for eleven years service as Executive Director of the Georgia Forestry Association.. He has also been named"1998 Forest Conservationist of the Year" by The Georgia Wildlife Federation, in recognition of efforts to forge strong common ground working relationships between the forestry community and various environmental organizations in the state.

Mr. Amha Bin Buang joins ITTO

Mr. Amha Bin Buang has been appointed Assistant Director for Economic Information and Market Intelligence in the International Tropical Timber Organisation.

Mr Takeichi Ishikawa ITTO

Mr Ishikawa has taken up the post of Assistant Director for Administration

Neil Byron leaves CIFOR

Dr Neil Byron, who has been at CIFOR since its foundation - first as Director Policy Development and then ADG, will take up appointment in Melbourne as one of Australia's Productivity Commissioners from July. The Productivity Commission is an influential autonomous agency, reviewing the state of industry sectors and recommending policy revision. Neil is also returning to his economist roots - forestry degree at ANU, with Queensland Department of Forestry, and a PhD in economics at UBC. Neil addressed forestry and economic issues from a range of platforms - the Australian Bureau of Agricultural Economics; academic posts at ANU's Department of Forestry and National Centre for Development Studies; with intervals in FAO in Bangladesh and other forestry projects in Asia and the Pacific. Readers of Commonwealth Forestry Review will be aware of his contribution and his significant presence at many of the international forestry research and policy fora of recent ye!ars.


Creative Research for Forestry in New Zealand

The NZ Forest Research Institute has revamped its brand and logo to signify a new structural and operational focus. The organisation is now to be known as Forest Research.

Chief executive, Bryce Heard, says the new identity is part of a strategy aimed at revitalising the organisation and refocusing its research to provide innovative, creative and commercial solutions that will expand international market share for New Zealand wood based products. The new structure has five research portfolios: market knowledge; sustainability and risk; manufacturing technologies; value chain optimisation and future forest. At the launch of the new look organisation, Mr Heard stressed the opportunities associated with the expanding harvest from New Zealand's radiata pine plantations. "To remain internationally competitive, the NZ forest industry has to find better ways of doing things, we have to be smarter than anyone else. We need better products and more efficient processes and that means research, development and technical innovation." E-mail contact with Forest Research is:-

from PETER BERG Nationjal chairman NZ

CIFOR - not a traditional Forest Research Institute

The Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) is not a traditional Forest Research Institute focusing on the silviculture of forest stands and the development of forest products. Instead, the emphasis of its research is at a broader scale, focusing largely on ecological and social impacts of forest management and policy at the landscape scale. This involves research in several disciplines and at scales ranging from the logging coupe`(e.g., reduced impact logging) to the landscape (e.g., forest ecosystem studies) and provincial scales (e.g., deforestation studies). Although based in Bogor, Indonesia, the Center conducts research throughout the tropics, and especially in developing countries with humid forests or extensive woodlands. To service this diverse research agenda, scientists are drawn from several disciplines and many nations, and pursue their research through collaboration with local scientists and other experts. Although they have a great deal of freedom in devising research methods, their research work tends to be applied, and must be consistent with the organisation's published strategy. More information - E-mail CIFOR, PO Box 6596 JKPWB, Jakarta 10065, Indonesia.


FORSPA - contribution to forestry research in Asia Pacific

The Forestry Research Support Programme for Asia and the Pacific (FORSPA) is a networking mechanism promoting regional collaboration in forestry research. It operates at both regional and national levels. At the regional level networking is promoted through the Asia Pacific Association of Forestry Research Institutions (APAFRI), which is being developed as a self-reliant mechanism to sustain the FORSPA initiatives. Support for topic specific networks, development of databases relevant to forestry research and regional studies relating to research are other activities. Country capacity strengthening efforts are focused on the national research systems. Strategic planning for forestry research, training of researchers and research managers, improving access to information and promoting inter-institutional collaboration through twinning arrangements are some of the key areas for institutional strengthening.

FORSPA was initiated in 1991 with financial support from the Asian Development Bank and the United Nations Development Programme and is currently funded by the Netherlands Government and implemented by FAO.

FORSPA, FAO Regional Office, Phra Atit Road, Bangkok 10200, Thailand Fax: 66-2-2804565, E. Mail

from C.T.S. NAIR, FAO

IUFRO'S Strategy for the 21st Century

The International Union of Forest Research Organisations was established primarily to "...promote international co-operation in scientific studies embracing the entire field of research relating to forests".

IUFRO has recently put out a statement of its strategic goals for the new millennium.

The Union's vision of success is the realisation of sustainable forestry worldwide. To this end it will address several objectives:- to act as a union of organisations, while seeking to engage its members as an organisation of individuals working on issues; to be an advocate of forest science; to mobilise task forces to address issues of sustainable forest management relating to mountains, water, gene resources and environmental change and to join in partnership with other organisations to ensure the scientific contribution on key global forestry issues reaches international policy fora. IUFRO affirms the resolutions of 1995 World Congress on the importance of:- forestry and forest products research; expanding research capacity especially in developing countries; partnership and communications; increased policy and problem oriented research in economic and social sciences.

from IUFRO Secretariat, Seckendorff-Gudent-Weg 8, Vienna A-1130, Austria.

Special features

Water pricing in South Africa

A National Water Bill?

Water is a critical resource in South Africa. The government therefore wants to introduce a charge on the water used, in order to reduce wastage and improve water management. That is the subject of this article.

Three South African authorities have kindly contributed to it. An apparent contradiction between the first two contributions, with regard to whether the new law would apply to all land uses or only to forestry, is explained by the fact that the government's intention is that other land uses could be made subject to the water charge, although at this stage only forestry, in line with existing laws, has apparently been identified as a streamflow reduction activity.


The Ministry's Viewpoint

The objective of the new water law is to conserve water resources and to distribute water more equally among our citizens. Pricing is a critical part of this. In the past, water pricing policy failed to even recover the real financial cost of delivering water, not to mention the broader social and environmental costs. As a result, water was used wastefully and without regard to sustainability. Our policy now is to introduce a pricing system which sends the right signals about water use -- both to industrial and domestic users. On the forestry side we know that large-scale exotic plantations reduce the amount of water that flows into streams, especially when they are planted on grasslands as is so often the case in South Africa. This reduces the amount of water that is available for other users.

We have 25 years of experience in regulating planting through our Afforestation Permit System. The new law will regulate all significant streamflow reduction activities and not only forestry. We will introduce a price for streamflow reduction through a catchment management charge. The law introduces catchment management agencies which will govern, regulate and develop water resources in a particular catchment. All water users will be expected to pay towards such management costs.

Forestry, like other streamflow reduction activities, will pay according to the quantity of water that it uses. Foresters and others will benefit from improved catchment management. In this way we will contribute to our broader objective for water -- Some for All, Forever.


A Private Sector Viewpoint

Private ownership of water, wherever it occurs in the hydrological cycle, and water use rights through property ownership, are outlawed in terms of the new Water Act. Foresters will therefore no longer be able to claim ownership of the rainfall that falls on their property, nor will they be entitled to use it without Government sanction. Of all land use activities, only forestry has been declared a 'stream-flow reduction' activity in terms of the Act. To use the rainfall, forestry will have to obtain a water-use license. Such a license will be valid for a maximum of 40 years and will be subject to review at 5-yearly intervals. Once licensed, such activities will become subject to water-use charges.

It is proposed that forestry be subject to two types of charges. Firstly a charge to facilitate catchment management activities, and secondly a charge for water through a stream flow reduction charge or a water interception levy. The former is completely acceptable to forestry, as it is analogous to the effect of the Afforestation Permit System which has in any case been in place since 1972. The latter is not! Forestry only uses rainfall, it has no control over the rainfall (i.e. no security of supply), it has no option but to use what falls on the forests, and it incurs no cost of supply. Furthermore, pricing and licensing will not lead to a reduction in water use unless trees are physically removed. Yet the Act provides little or no opportunity to claim compensation under these circumstances.

Private sector forestry is therefore justifiably concerned about the new act, which takes away established rights to water, without compensation, and then allocates it back in uncertain and un-guaranteed quantities for which an administratively set price will be charged.

from MIKE EDWARDS Executive Director
Forest Owners' Association

A View from the Research Community

Given that the forestry sector will have to pay for its water use, calculated on a streamflow reduction basis, this raises the question of how well such flow reductions can be estimated. The answer is, rather well. Relative to any other land use in South Africa, the hydrology of timber plantations is well understood, thanks to a long history of forestry hydrology research. However, the extent to which these estimates will serve the State's need to charge for water may well be something we will only know after they have been challenged in courts of law.

Following debate at the Commonwealth Forestry Conference in South Africa in 1935, a forest hydrological research programme was begun with the establishment of the Jonkershoek Forest Influences Research Station headed by Dr C.L. Wicht. A network of afforestation experiments, spread throughout the country, all indicated that afforestation of native scrub (fynbos) or grassland caused a marked reduction in streamflow. Streamflow reduction following afforestation is more rapid under eucalypts than under pines, but mature plantations of both species groups can cause mean flow reductions of 5000 cubic metres per annum per planted hectare (500 mm/a in rainfall equivalent), where that much water is available. The pattern of flow reductions mimics a growth curve; hence rotation length is an important determinant of water use, as is water availability (essentially, rainfall at the site). There are uncertainties about the size of effects on drier forestry sites (mean annual p!recipitation <1000 mm), the influence of site variability, second rotation effects (the extent of a carry-over effect from the first rotation), and the effects of wattle (Acacia spp.). In terms of the general picture, our recent assessment (1997) has it that 1.44 million ha of plantations use (reduce streamflows) by on average 1.4 billion cu.m/yr , or 3.2% of total surface runoff in the country or roughly 7% of what water is estimated as being utilizable.

CSIR Division of Water, Environment and Forestry Technology

Outlook for Forestry

The view from Canberra, Australia

The 1998 Outlook Conference - 3rd February - was organised by the Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics in association with CFA, the Institute of Foresters and the Australian National University. Graham Love of ABARE presented the first section on the outlook for Australian forest products. He stressed the importance of cost effectiveness if Australia was going to compete in the global market for forest products. He presented new statistics on native forests totalling 155.8 million ha made up of 4.6 m.ha of closed forest, 39.2 m.ha of open forest and 112 m.ha of woodland. He drew attention to the Vision 2020 plantation programme for achieving new planting of 80,000 ha per annum. In 1994/5 the area planted has increased significantly, from the low annual figure of the past ten years of 8,000 ha, to 27,000 ha of which 13,000 ha was Eucalypt. Richard Stanton who is co-ordinating this programme to establish 2 million ha in the next 25 years has a big job ah!ead of him, but the greenhouse gas credit system which will come into vogue could well lift the possibilities.

Mike Apsey of Vancouver, presented a paper prepared jointly with Prof. Les Reed, discussing gap analysis and the response to close the gap between world supply and demand for wood. He suggested a shortfall in the supply of softwoods of 21% increasing to 24% and of hardwoods of 20% increasing to 26% respectively by the years 2010 and 2020. The solution to service this demand shortfall ranges across intensive silviculture, accelerating plantation establishment, increasing recycling, using thinner paper and wood preservation. Mike Apsey predicted turbulent times ahead., weak prices in spite of good demand, volatility and regional mismatches. The obvious implication for the people of Australia is that fibre shortages in the Pacific Basin holds a tremendous potential for regions with land suitable for afforestation which with sustainable forest management may take the pressure off threatened tropical forest.

from BOB NEWMAN Vice-President and Regional Vice-Chairman Asia Pacific

FAO's 1998 Outlook for the Asia-Pacific Forestry Sector

Under the auspices of the inter-governmental Asia-Pacific Forestry Commission, FAO has completed a study describing potential developments in the forestry sector in the Asia-Pacific region. The Asia-Pacific outlook study projects demand and supply potential for wood products through the year 2010. Given the economic, environmental and social significance of forests in the region, the study also involved particular efforts to review prospects for services of forests and for non-wood forest products.

Several key messages emerged from the study. The most important conclusion is that, in gross terms, there is enough wood available in the Asia-Pacific region to meet projected demand. However, much of the timber growing in the region is in small sizes while the industrial structure of the region is now equipped largely to convert large logs. In other cases, market demand is concentrated where it cannot be met competitively by supplies from within the region. Withdrawal of forests from production to meet conservation objectives may continue, thus increasing the stress on available sources of supply. As a consequence, the region will continue to rely on imports to top off its growing production capability; it is likely to even reverse its current net surplus in wooden panel products. The declining availability of large logs suggests continuing market adjustment towards products requiring smaller logs, lower-quality fibre and residues.

A second important message is that non-forest sources of wood and fibre are an important complement to forests - in some cases they may even be more important. Among those requiring greater policy attention are: trees growing outside forests (including agricultural tree crops); wood residues; used paper for recycling; non-wood fibre (in countries particularly short of forests). A third key message is that greater efforts can be expected to commercialise services of forests, especially water, ecotourism, genetic resources, and carbon capture.

In support of the study, contributing authors in nearly twenty countries provided country profiles which, together with thematic papers, totalled nearly 50 working papers available through the FAO home page ( The report will be available in June 1998, contact by email:


Forest Scenes

Guadalupe, pines and goats

"The Conservation of Forest Genetic Resources" by Ledig et al in the Journal of Forestry (January1998) refers to very small but genetically potentially valuable populations of Guadalupe Island Pine (a variety of Pinus radiata) whose future is threatened on the island since its regeneration is destroyed by the browsing of feral goats, which were introduced in the last century. Now the goats have been there so long that they have developed a distinct "land race" and instead of being able to reduce them to protect the pine regeneration, the goats are now the subject of conservation!

Archaeology in the woods

An abandoned village has been discovered in a Welsh forest. Found during a survey of thousands of archaeological sites across the 130 000 ha., all the land owned by Forest Enterprise Wales. The survey was urgently needed because most Forestry Commission planting was on derelict agricultural land after 1945 and the trees are now ready for harvesting. It has already uncovered hundreds of previously unrecorded archaeological sites - Bronze Age barrows, Roman roads, houses and farm buildings.

from the Guardian Newspaper 3.8.98


Grounds for Controversy?

The following are short quotations from several interesting articles and comments in the Commonwealth Forestry Review over the last 12 Months. The editorial - A legally binding forest convention - [CFR 76/4 1997 pp237-8] reminds us that among Association objectives are the promotion of policies in support of good forestry practice and the exchange of information and ideas about forestry and forest policy. The discussion of the approach to options in these articles, is at the heart of the matter faced by those trying to agree a binding convention for forests. You may agree or disagree or you may otherwise be stimulated to exchange views on the subjects raised. You are warmly invited to express your views in our correspondence column on these or other subjects which you consider urgent for discussion by the community interested in forests.


Matthew Dickinson, Joshua Dickinson and Francis Putz Natural forest management as a conservation tool. [CFR 75/4 1996 pp309-315]

"The general argument for natural forest management is that by conferring relatively more economic value on forests than alternative uses, natural forest management for timber is a necessary though imperfect means by which extensive areas of forest cover and a large measure of their biological diversity would be maintained outside nature reserves."

Arnold Grayson reviewing R.Fenton. The Indonesian plywood industry: a study of the statistical base, the value added effects and the forest impact. [CFR 75/4 1996 pp344-5]

"Fenton points out that much of the tropical forest is to be put on a sustainable production basis by the year 2000. As most of the forest industries in South East Asian countries have a log consumption much in excess of the sustainable level of the natural forest, there could be marked changes over the next few years. The author's view is one of surprise that such a policy, to sustain a resource for ever because it happens to be there at present, could be taken seriously. He notes that Java and Bali are Indonesian examples of converting the original forest cover to intensive agriculture, yet if the new orthodoxy of sustainability is applied, the original forest would have been reserved for extensive forest management. Fenton's thinking is refreshing."

W. Finlayson. Correspondence [CFR 76/2, 1997p150]

"The article by Dickinson, Dickinson and Putz on natural forest management is masterly. On the other hand there is the review of Fenton's study of the Indonesian plywood industry: its comments on sustainability seem to me to be thoroughly misguided. Some of the early, naive forest economics textbooks said simply that if forest liquidation is more profitable, the forest should be liquidated. The arguments against accepting this view as a guide to forest policy can be found in the D,D and P article. These arguments appear to me and presumably to most foresters and conservationists alike, to be irrefutable."

Philip Stott. Dynamic tropical forestry in an unstable world.[CFR 76/3 1997 pp207 - 209]

"The idea that most of the world's 'natural' forests are essentially climatic climax communities in equilibrium with a given climate has probably been one of the most persistent, yet pernicious, concepts in world ecology - the idea continues to be applied and nowhere more so than in the tropics. Unfortunately, real ecology is telling us something very different. Change is the norm, not stability of any kind. From the human point of view, what matters are the systems that replace the forests in time and space. ..We could undoubtedly remove all the so called 'natural' forests from the world safely and replace them with adaptive systems of greater value to humans...Tropical forests will go, it is essential that foresters insist and demonstrate that they go productively and that they are replaced by systems of maximum benefit to as many humans as possible......"

E.F.Bruenig. The big and vicious El Nino Southern Oscillation - forest fire cycle: an acute threat to sustainability. [CFR 76/4 1997 pp283 - 285]

"R Strecher [1939] commends the holistic view of forests, forestry and the social environment as interactive and interdependent dynamic systems, quite opposed to the view of the forest as an entity exclusively managed to produce timber and profits at maximum rates... Episodic fires have been a regular natural phenomenon in fire prone ecosystems on xeric sites of the Malesian floral region during extreme droughts of the prehistoric past. Large scale burns in recent decades during anomalies of the El Nino Southern Oscillation, however are caused by man... It will require time, patience and dedication to effect the profound changes from within the political and social systems before a socially satisfactory answer can be given to Strecker's question 'which option should be adopted: private profit or common prosperity and well being?' "


Arnold Grayson Editor CFR writes:

But are there no vital questions that matter to foresters other than those to be found in the pages of recent issues of CFR? Would you consider some stray worries such as: whither participatory forestry, the WTO and capitalism, the Greens- have they gone too far?, the World Bank and structural adjustment, trade and the spread of pests and diseases?

Duncan Poore, Vice-President writes:

There is something about which I am concerned - the increasing appearance in the pages of the Review of the juxtaposition of foresters and conservationists as groups in conflict with one another. Is this really still the position?

In the World Conservation Strategy conservation is defined as: the management and human use of the biosphere so that it may yield the greatest sustainable benefit to present generations while maintaining its potential to meet the needs and aspirations of future generations. Thus it is positive, embracing preservation, maintenance, sustainable utilisation and enhancement of the natural environment. Living resources are renewable if conserved and destructible if not.

For CIFOR I described the purpose of forestry: to maintain and, if appropriate, to enhance the potential of forest systems (forests, forest lands and trees in the landscape) to deliver to this generation and to future generations as many as possible of the benefits that they expect from the forest. The key word in this description is 'potential'. This does not imply that the forest system should be in balance at all times, but it does imply that nothing should be done to cause irreversible damage to it.

Forests do not exist in isolation. They are subject , for example, to external physical influences such as climate change and pollution and to economic factors such as trade balance and exchange rates. Forest management has effects which reach beyond the forest boundary, for example on the global carbon balance and on hydrological cycles. These fields are the legitimate concern of forestry

Forests occupy space. As population increases and social and economic development proceeds there will inevitably be increasing demand on this space - for food production, living space and infrastructure. A purpose of forestry is to ensure forest claims sufficient space for the benefits it provides in close integration with other aspects of resource management.

It would be naive to consider that all interests can invariably be fully satisfied by the way in which a particular forest is managed. There will be trade-offs between different interests. Forestry should strive for an acceptable balance between : the yield of goods and services that is ecologically and economically sustainable, broad social satisfaction and environmental quality. Forest management is a long-term enterprise and must adopt a long-term perspective adapting to changing circumstances as communities evolve, markets fluctuate and human values are not constant.

Are the objectives not substantially the same?

The new CF News

From John Wood
Hon sec Friends of the Commonwealth Foundation

"Thank you for putting an entry in Commonwealth Forestry News about the Foundation and The Friends. I was interested to look through the whole issue - I am often astonished at both the vigour and quality of Commonwealth Associations, many run on a very small shoestring."

From Tim Peck, EFI

"Congratulations on the excellent initiative to produce the Commonwealth Forestry Newsletter, a useful complement to the CFR."

From Peter Kanowski - Mon, 20 Jul 1998

The newsletter and March edition of The Commonwealth Forestry Review 77(1) just arrived - obviously by boat. Sorry for red herring.

Late News

Amazonia 2000

A conference with the title Amazonia 2000: Development, Environment and Geopolitics, organised by the Institute of Latin American Studies (ILAS), University of London, took place in the Senate House of the University of London from 24 to 26 June 1998. It was sponsored by the Brazilian Embassy, the British Council, the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, SERASA, Shell International, UNESCO and the World Bank. Professor Anthony Hall of London School of Economics and ILAS was convenor and chaired many of the sessions. The administrator was Ms Anna Hayes, ILAS.

The main lectures with a forestry relevance were:

The keynote speech by Ghillean Prance, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

"Extractive logging in the Guianas" by Wouter Veening, IUCN, The Netherlands.

"Agroforestry developments and prospects in the Brazilian Amazon" by Nigel Smith, University of Florida, Gainesville.

"Monitoring Amazonian deforestation" by Diôgenes Alves, Brazilian Space Institute.

"Strategies for Amazonian forest restoration: Evidence for afforestation in five regions of the Brazilian Amazon" by Emilio Moran, Indiana University.

"Forest renewability and the global carbon cycle" by Doreen Boyd, Kingston University, UK.

"Forest degradation, fragmentation and species loss" by Thomas Lovejoy, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC.

"Deforestation impacts, environmental services and the international community" by Philip Fearnside, Institute for Amazon Research (INPA), Manaus.

"Biodiversity, genetic resources and indigenous populations" by Darrell Posey, Oxford University.


Community Forestry: who Participates, who Benefits?

A recent FAO excursion to the Vale de Fiemme in the Province of Trento in Northern Italy with a party from the Forest, Trees & People Programme illustrated different aspects of participation and involvement in the decision-making and allocation of benefits from community forestry.

The first community - the Magnifica Comunità di Fiemme, was founded early in the Middle Ages and has with written records dating from 1111. Its members - vicini -manage the forest under a collective management system. They successfully resisted centralising control of forests during Napoleonic times and challenges during the Italian Fascist regime when many rights of grazing, collecting firewood and mushrooms were abolished on payment of compensation. Resident men or women of the communities of more than 20 years, are entitled to be vicini. The Magnifica Comunità is similar to a corporation, except that the "shareholders" are restricted to the vicini and the capital, represented by the land and growing stock, is inalienable. It is a public entity entitled to receive grants from the !Provincial authorities and has three objectives: individual profit for the members; projects benefiting the community in general; and the accelerated development of the communes, principally through the creation of employment.

The other example of communal management of forest land which was visited in the Val de Fiemme was the Regola di Predazzo, based in the village of that name. It possesses 2 700 ha of woodland and pasture, which is inalienable, and purchased land, which can be sold. It is not entitled to public funding. Rights to participate are restricted to the descendants of 21 original families from the 15th century, of whom 19 still bear the same surname. There were 791 vicini, 441 are local inhabitants. Their objective is to maximise income to each household but there has been a split between "traditionalists" concentrating on growing trees for sale and "modernists" who want new businesses, such a skiing facilities, cottages for rent, tourist goods, hunting and even hydro-power. Their un-stated objectives include the prestige of belonging, and the cultural aspects of membership.


CFA Initiatives

Commonwealth Forestry Review 77(3)1998



EDITOR's introduction

Opportunities generated by the Kyoto protocol in the forest sector
Background: post-Kyoto conference, UNCTAD's role in carbon emissions trading
Kyoto - a new dawn for forest policy?
Technical aspects: An approach to estimating carbon stocks in tropical forests and associated land uses
WWF guidelines for forests for carbon sequestration and storage
Implementation: Forestry-based greenhouse gas mitigation: the story of market evolution
Implementing carbon sequestration projects in two contrasting areas: the Czech Republic and Uganda
SGS' carbon offset verification service
Assessing and monitoring carbon offset projects: the Costa Rican case
Quantification and regulation of carbon offsets from forestry: comparison of alternative methodologies, with special reference to Chiapas, Mexico
Economic aspects of carbon sequestration and forests

Commonwealth Forestry Association Website

The Canadian Chapter of the CFA manages its own Website on the Internet. The site has proven to be a useful way of networking with CFA members within Canada and abroad. Commonwealth Forestry News No2 can be located on this site.

The Website address is:

from John Roper

Calling all foresters

Commonwealth Forestry News

A central policy of this newly launched CFA newsletter is to seek the direct participation of people active in various ways in the forestry sector around the Commonwealth and beyond. This includes people in forest services, private industry, research institutes and university forestry departments, NGOs, forestry associations.

CFNews invites contributions

Send them to the editor E-mail:

CFA Facsimile: [+44]01865 275074. E.mail

- from you yourself and from members of your university, forestry school, research station, organisation, company, association. This is a call to all foresters, to people concerned about forestry - around the Commonwealth - in every country and organisation interested in forestry around the world.

A contribution may be about the organisation, a particular initiative or activity or a descriptive piece about an interesting forestry subject. The idea is that it should be of interest to colleagues around the world and provide them with information about your organisation, activities, approaches, research, studies, the problems or exciting features of your forestry. The rule, because of our limited space, is that contributions should be in the form of a very concise essay of not more than 200 words. Authors should provide their name and address and position in the institution.

There is a book prize for the best essays selected for publication received from students, young researchers and young professional foresters.

A lively and participative CFNews needs you!

CFA Membership

New members in 1998

Welcome from Jag Maini Chairman and all of us in the Association 20 new members and 5 new subscribers to the CFR in the first 6 months of 1998:-

JAPAN Mr. H.M. Thein
NIGERIA Mrs A.F. Somade
SOUTH AFRICA H.L. Hall & Sons, Prof. D.D. Tewari
TANZANIA Mr V.G. Nambombe,
U.K .Mr. S. Akhter, Ms E.G.K. Boyd, Dr. P.H.M. Costa, Mr. A. Iles, Mrs H. Kuhon-Loa, Mr. V.C. Kwashirai, Mr. B.M. Stewart, Mr. A.S. West
UGANDA Mr J.B. Byamah
ZAMBIA Prof. E.N. Chidumayo,
ZIMBABWE Mr. W.C. Johnstone,

CFA Membership

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Membership is available to anyone throughout the world with an interest in forestry!


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